17: 78: Surah Al Isra:
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
أَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ لِدُلُوكِ ٱلشَّمۡسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَقُرۡءَانَ ٱلۡفَجۡرِۖ إِنَّ قُرۡءَانَ ٱلۡفَجۡرِ كَانَ مَشۡہُودً۬ا (٧٨)
Establish worship at the going down of the sun until the dark of night, and (the recital of) the Qur’an at dawn. Lo! (the recital of) the Qur’an at dawn is ever witnessed. (78)
TAFSEER BY DR. FARHAT HASHMI (Alhudapk.com)
* Establish salah from the decrease in the zenith of the sun, when it is going towards sunset and actually also sunset (sunset and or salah of Maghrib) till the darkness of the night.
1. This thus includes Dhuhr Asr and Maghrib.
2. If we restrict the meaning to the sunset, then we are including only Maghrib.
The first tafseer is more accepted.
These Ayahs include the timings of the Salahs starting in fajr.
He (Subhanawataala) then says: recite Quran at Fajr till the day light comes out. Without a doubt the time of fajr is Mashhood: which means “Mushahida or Hazir”. At this time the Angels are present (gathered) and there is a change in command between the night and day angels:
Allah Subhanawataala asks the departing angels what his creation (humans) was doing. They say we found your servant in prayer when we came and when we left (fajr and asr to Maghrib)
These are the timings of Salah being outlined also noted in:
Surah Nisa 4:103:
When ye have performed the act of worship, remember Allah, standing, sitting and reclining. And when ye are in safety, observe proper worship. Worship at fixed times hath been enjoined on the believers. (103)
Surah Hud 114
Establish worship at the two ends of the day and in some watches of the night. Lo! Good deeds annul ill deeds. This is reminder for the mindful. (114)
At this time the Angels are attentive to your recitation and become the witness of your recitation and report back to Allah Subhanawataala.