Excerpted from the Tafseer & Discussion of Dr. Farhat Hashmi (translated from urdu)
This surah teaches us the relationship and the etiquette of the student even if he eventually excels the education of the teacher. The same as the etiquette with the parents’ even if the child excels in ilm he should approach and stay with respect with the parent and teacher.
1. The teacher has the status of a Mohsin. Education is the ehsaan from Allah that he has allocated a teacher for us. We should show gratitude to Allah Subhanawataala for giving us a teacher who is willing to teach us and thank the teacher.
2. The student has to go to the teacher to learn and not vice versa: Musa (AS) went to Khazar not vice versa. Musa AS was a Prophet he did not ask Allah SWT to send Khazar to him because of his status as a Prophet.
وَإِذ قَالَ مُوسَى لِفَتَهُ لَآ أَبرَحُ حَتَّى أَبلُغَ مَجمَعَ ٱلبَحرَينِ أَو أَمضِىَ حُقُبًا (٦٠)
Behold, Moses said to his attendant “I will not give up until I reach the junction of the two seas or (until) I spend years and years in travel.” (60)
The junction of the two seas was where Allah Subhanawataala had told him that he would find Khazar.
3. Even if the status of the student is greater than the teacher, the obedience and respect of the teacher is mandatory. The example is of Musa AS whose status as a Prophet was significant and yet his manner with Khazar was deeply humble, obedient and respectful.
قَالَ لَهُ ۥ مُوسَىٰ هَلۡ أَتَّبِعُكَ عَلَىٰٓ أَن تُعَلِّمَنِ مِمَّا عُلِّمۡتَ رُشۡدً۬ا (٦٦)
Moses said unto him: May I follow thee, to the end that thou mayst teach me right conduct of that which thou hast been taught? (66)
4. The questions that the teachers has asked you to hold, then the student has to wait for when he is granted permission to ask and not insist on asking questions.
قَالَ فَإِنِ ٱتَّبَعۡتَنِى فَلَا تَسۡـَٔلۡنِى عَن شَىۡءٍ حَتَّىٰٓ أُحۡدِثَ لَكَ مِنۡهُ ذِكۡرً۬ا (٧٠)
He said: Well, if thou go with me, ask me not concerning aught till I myself mention of it unto thee. (70)
5. If one does or says something that is hurtful or impolite to the teacher one should immediately apologize and ask for forgiveness.
قَالَ لَا تُؤَاخِذۡنِى بِمَا نَسِيتُ وَلَا تُرۡهِقۡنِى مِنۡ أَمۡرِى عُسۡرً۬ا (٧٣)
Mûsa (Moses)] said: “Call me not to account for what I forgot, and be not hard upon me for my affair (with you).” (73)
This is the etiquette of a prophet (Musa AS) of great stature, apologizing for his forgetfulness and asking Khizar not to judge him based on that.