SURAH IBRAHIM 14:31
قُل لِّعِبَادِىَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ يُقِيمُواْ ٱلصَّلَوةَ وَيُنفِقُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقنَـٰهُم سِرًّا وَعَلَانِيَةً مِّن قَبلِ أَن يَأتِىَ يَومٌ لَّا بَيعٌ فِيهِ وَلَا خِلَـلٌ (٣١)
Tell My bondmen who believe to establish worship and spend of that which We have given them, secretly and publicly, before a day cometh wherein there will be neither traffick nor befriending. (31)
Rizq, Sadaqa and Salah, are some keywords in this ayah. We always think of Rizq as food, Sadaqa as money given in charity (thus only for those who can afford) and Salaah as an expression of worship. Dr. Farhat Hashmi in the tafseer of this ayah clarifies these terms succinctly.
TAFSEER BY DR. FARHAT HASHMI 14:31
Allah Subhanawataala commands Prophet Muhammad pbuh to” tell those people of mine who have imaan that they should establish salaat and give sadaqa”
The first part of the command is to establish salah as the very definition and expression of emaan is to establish salaah.
The second part of the command is to give Sadaqa. This is to be given from what Allah Subhanawataala has given us and is not only restricted to money, but also other naimah mentioned below. Give from that to others, not all of it but some of it.
What is rizq? It includes ALL beneficial things that He (Subhanawataala has given us (the people of faith and slaves of Allah) i.e. intellect, material goods, good advice, good words, ilm knowledge of dunya and of Deen. He commands us to give in secrecy, as well as openly. Giving from person to person is best done in secrecy. Giving in secrecy prevents Riya. (Which is a disease of the heart that leads to shirk)
SEVEN PEOPLE WILL BE GIVEN SHADE ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT
- One you gave with his right hand and gave it in secrecy such that even his left hand does not know what the right hand gave.
- The quality (not necessarily quantity only) of the sadaqa will become itself a shade for the believer on the Day of Judgment
And further more in some cases also give sadaqa openly to inspire others to the right path, by example.
Thus all those people who will follow this sadaqa giving habit, the person who set the example by giving overtly to a good cause will also benefit from it on the Day of Judgment.
What we spend overtly and openly e.g. for Tabligh-e Deen, jihad fi sabillallah, ilm of deen (teach others) or teaching ilm that is beneficial to another, whether it is for deen or dunya is all encompassed in sadaqa.
Thus teaching a skill is also a sadaqa (teaching a prayer, sewing, teach someone how to cook, or read)
Hadith: the sadaqa of each joint deserves a sadaqa every day, even repeating dhikr is sadaqa. (Kalimatu tayabatu sadaqa)
So the command is to do Sadaqa before the Day of Judgment, which is that day when there will be no trade and no friendship will be of any use
Elsewhere in the Quran Allah Subhanawataala says:
AL-BAQARA (THE COW) 002.123 Translations by YUSUFALI:
Then guard yourselves against a-Day when one soul shall not avail another, nor shall compensation be accepted from her nor shall intercession profit her nor shall anyone be helped (from outside).
AL-BAQARA (THE COW) 002.254 O ye who believe! Spend out of (the bounties) We have provided for you, before the Day comes when no bargaining (Will avail), nor friendship nor intercession. Those who reject Faith they are the wrong-doers.
AZ-ZUKHRUF (ORNAMENTS OF GOLD, LUXURY) 043.067
Friends on that day will be foes, one to another, – except the Righteous.: On that day even friends will become enemies of one another, except those who have taqwa.
Those who have emaan must give proof of it by establishing salaah and giving sadaqa.